started around 500 BCE. After this time the whole of North Germany down to the Eifel and to the Westerwald on the right bank of the Rhine, the Netherlands, Belgium and northern France to the Ardennes line will have been linguistically mixed with Celtic predominating in the west. Futher pentration came with the Cimbri who left a remnant (the Atuatuci) around Tongeren in Belgium and the arrival of German speakers in the Rhine-Main area and in the Pfalz and Alsace just before Caesar began the conquest of Gaul.
Celtic and German
peoples in Gallia Belgica and Germania.
The earliest is J Caesar
whose Bello Gallica (52 BCE) mentions the names of the peoples allied with and opposed to Rome in the second half of the first century BCE.
He is followed by Strabo
who's Geography, finished about 7 BCE, extends the list but omits some named by Caesar. Strabo presents the situation at the beginning of the first century BCE naming some German tribes that may well have been outside the two provinces. He gives as fifteen the number of Belgic tribes (Strabo iv. p. 196 ).
Pliny the elder (24-79 CE)
gives the longest list mixing the names of the peoples (civitates) with those of their sub divisions (pagi). Pliny reflects the organisation of the provinces under Augustus and seems to indicate that many of the pagi were given their independence. The Catustugae appear in the valley of the Bresle and the Tongri have be created from the Euberones and the Atuatuci.
(working between 110 and 140 CE ) gives the names of the peoples he locates on his map. Ptolemy returns to a simpler situation.
The complete list
of peoples in Gaul at various times said to be Germanic by Caesar, Strabo, Pliny or Ptolemy is: